For example, Ogun, the god of iron and war, is believed to prefer the colors red and white also the favorite colors of Shango , and rams and roosters are his preferred offerings. A translation, with introduction and notes, by Magdeline W. They see no inconsistency between their Christian faith and non-Christian beliefs. Ethnic Folkways Library P 435. On many islands shortly before the end of the 18th century, the enslaved Afro-Caribbeans greatly outnumbered their European masters. Great Britain abolished slavery in its holdings in 1834.
In the poetry and prose written by contemporary Rastafarians awareness of an African identity and of Africa itself is a main theme Johnson, 1980. The Black Carib of British Honduras. Search Afro-Caribbean and thousands of other words in English Cobuild dictionary from Reverso. But the endless variations in these and other beliefs concerning the ultimate reality are also the result of the absence of a hierarchy in the cult and of written documents. The Rastafarian movement, which appeared in the island during this period, is a mixture of social protest and religious doctrine and so may be called a religio-political cult. The authorities took severe measures against the movement. The regime of has not assisted the Afro-Cuban cults and has taken some measures to control their expansion Barrett, 1982.
By the mid-16th century, the from to the Caribbean was so profitable that and were prepared to engage in piracy as well as break Spanish colonial laws, in order to forcibly transport approximately 1500 enslaved people from to modern-day and. Afro-Caribbean resistance, revolutions and uprisings led to the abolition of slavery, and their involvement in subsequent campaigns for independence led to the establishment of the region's nation states. Inspired by French revolutionary sentiments that at one point freed the slaves, and led the that gained the independence of in 1804, the first Afro-Caribbean republic in the. Simpson's Ideas about Ultimate Reality and Meaning in Haitian Vodun. Several non-Yoruba powers —especially Gabriel and Mama Latay —are popular in Trinidad. In Haitian vodou, every man has two souls: the gro bonanj, which animates the body and is similar to the soul in the Christian sense, and the ti bonanj, which protects a person against dangers by day and by night M étraux, 1946.
The relationship between vodou adherents and the lwa is thought to be a contractual one; if one is punctilious about offerings and ceremonies, the lwa will be generous with their aid. An important factor in its decline has been the decay of the large extended family in the rural areas. The name West Indian was first used by Christopher Columbus, to describe the inhabitants that he found. Each bongo man operates independently, and each has one or more assistants called apprentices or grooms. Today many priests and priestesses officiate in Miami, City, Newark, Detroit, Chicago, Savannah, Gary, and other cities Bascom, 1972. The Black Caribs of Honduras.
Kumina According to Monica Schuler 1980 , Kumina did not originate among plantation slaves of the eighteenth century but was brought to Jamaica by post-emancipation immigrants from central Africa who chiefly settled in the eastern parish of Saint Thomas. Shangoists as well as Shouters need to be baptized, and only a Shouters pastor of some standing can perform this service. In 1841 —1842, Myalists preached the millenarian message that they were God's angels, appointed to do the work of the Lord, and their wrath was directed against both planters and missionaries. A ram is then sacrificed to the ancestors. Cited in text as 1937a.
Singing, drumming, and dancing are intended to placate the ancestors of the family giving the ceremony, and some participants become possessed by the spirits of their deceased ancestors, as occurs in Kumina and Convince in Jamaica, the Big Drum in Grenada and Carriacou, and Kele in Saint Lucia. Saint Lucia is a predominantly Catholic country, and some devotees of the cult are active Catholics. Henney, and Esther Pressel, pp. World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Study of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, ad 1900 —2000. Animals are sacrificed to Yoruba deities, Yoruba music is played on African-type drums, songs with Yoruba words and music are sung, and dancers are possessed by the orisha Yor. Most reggae songs contain caustic social comments, but they also praise Ras Tafari, Jamaican heroes, freedom, and ganja Barrett, 1977; Chevannes, 1977.
There are many similarities between the Shango cult of Trinidad and that of Grenada Pollak-Eltz, 1968; Simpson, 1978. Both the home and diaspora populations have produced a number of individuals who have had a notable influence on modern Western and African societies — from Marcus Garvey and W. Ancient African gods are identified with certain Catholic saints, as occurs in Haiti, Grenada, parts of Brazil, Cuba, and other countries in the New World. A recent theme of the movement has to do with its concept of nature. The experience of Caribbean blacks under the political, economic, and domestic conditions of slavery modified character in a stressful direction, and those who were most sensitive to the stress advanced innovative religious and secular systems to deal with their anxiety.
The militancy of present-day Rastafarianism is seen clearly in its concept of a modern Babylon that includes Britain, the former colonial power; the United States, the present major industrial power; the bourgeois state of Jamaica; and the church. This essay will concentrate on four types of syncretic religious cults found in the Caribbean region, which will be called the neo-African cults, the ancestral cults, the revivalist cults, and the religio-political cults. Since emancipation, persons on the lower rungs of Jamaican society have struggled continuously against exploitation. Many of these have names derived from old African gods, but other deities have names derived from African tribal or place names, names of Haitian origin, or names of Catholic saints; others have names of uncertain origin. To these believers, Shango is simply the name of the thunderstones that enable the living to get in touch with their African ancestors. Afro-Caribbean Afro-Caribbeans are Caribbean people who trace their heritage to Africa in the period since Christopher Columbus's arrival in the region in 1492. In vodou belief, the dead rank second only to the lwa, and to neglect or anger them is to invite disaster.
Thus, Legba is often believed to be the same as Anthony the Hermit, but some say that he is , the keeper of the keys. Among these pairings in Trinidad are Obatala and ; Shango and ; Shakpana and, variously, Moses or or Saint Jerome; Oshun and Saint Philomena or ; B éji Ibeji and Saint Peter; Emanja and Saint Catherine or Saint Anne; Oya and Saint Philomena or Saint Catherine. In that period, Rastafarians were subjected to intense police pressure in Saint Thomas and neighboring parishes. After Eshu's ejection, the worshipers invite other powers to the ceremony by drumming the powers' favorite rhythms. The major cults of this type are Haitian vodou, Cuban Santer ía, and Trinidadian Shango. Life in a Haitian Valley.