Developmental anomalies, pathological changes, or obesity can enhance the normal vertebral column curves, resulting in the development of abnormal or excessive curvatures. The inferior articular processes are flat and face downward to join with the superior articular processes of the C2 vertebra. This was found during an ultrasound of my neck, and confirmed with an angiogram. They begin in the chest and travel up along the sides of the v … ertebrae, the bony segments of the spine. The spinous processes of the fused vertebrae form the median sacral crest on the posterior midline.
The portion connecting the anterior tubercle and posterior tubercle to the pedicle of the vertebra is the anterior and posterior root. The cervical spine is the most superior portion of the vertebral column, lying between the cranium and the thoracic vertebrae. Arising from the vertebral arch are the laterally projecting transverse processes and the posteriorly oriented spinous process. The transverse foramina in cervical vertebrae are the structures that actually make the vertebraemost easily recognized as a cervical vertebrae rather than a thoracic or a lumbar vertebrae. In the head, superficial structures on the exterior of the skull are drained by the pair of external jugular veins, which descend through the neck lateral to the vertebral veins.
The cardiovascular system of the head and neck includes the vital arteries that provide oxygenated blood to the brain and organs of the head, including the mouth and eyes. Using vernier calipers with 0. The internal jugular veins collect blood from the brain as well as the superficial structures of the head and neck before descending through the neck towards the heart. Depressing the ribs causes a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity. Arteries send rich blood away throughout the cells.
Spondylosis refers to changes occurring in the bones ultimately resulting in compression of the nerve roots passing through these regions. A posterior view of a midthoracic vertebra resembles a giraffe. They occur between then superior facets of the lateral masses of the atlas and the occipital condyles at the base of the cranium. These are condyloid type synovial joints, and permit flexion at the head i. Often these fractures are unstable and are at high risk of avascular necrosis, due to the isolation of the distal fragment from any blood supply. Anterior sacral foramina on the anterior surface serve a similar function. They serve as lateral passageways for that exit the spinal cord.
Note: Some texts consider the interspinous ligament to be part of the nuchal ligament. The false ribs are also known as vertebrochondral ribs. The vertebral arteries that supply the brain ascends up the neck by passing through these openings. Of course, if the left vertebral were severed via trauma, it would require surgery to repair because of the bleed into the brain would cause swelling and brain trauma. The outer, fibrous layer of a disc is called the anulus fibrosus. We do not share your email address with others. Pearson Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of.
The thoracic spine normally has a characteristic kyphotic curve. During fetal development, the body is flexed anteriorly into the fetal position, giving the entire vertebral column a single curvature that is concave anteriorly. The thoracic vertebrae form the posterior most portion of the thorax which includes sternum, ribs and costal cartilage. This causes the disc to become thinner, decreasing total body height somewhat, and reduces the flexibility and range of motion of the disc, making bending more difficult. It also has articulation sites facets on the vertebral body and a transverse process for rib attachment. Lumbar Vertebrae The five l umbar vertebrae L1-L5 have heavy, thick bodies to support the greater stress and weight that is placed on this region of the vertebral column. When present, scoliosis tends to get worse during adolescent growth spurts.
The atlas C1 vertebra differs from the other cervical vertebrae in that it does not have a body, but instead consists of bony ring formed by the anterior and posterior arches. Fracture of the Dens Fractures of the dens make up around 40% of the fractures of the axis, and are most commonly caused by traffic collisions and falls. Scoliosis is the most common vertebral abnormality among girls. This information is intended for medical education, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment. In extreme cases, surgery may be required. In other words Arteries are blood vessels that carry r … ich blood away from the heart throughout the body. The osteocytes observed in 21.
Each lamina forms part of the posterior roof of the vertebral arch. The accessory transverse foramina seen in 24% of vertebrae suggest duplications or fenestrations in the vertebral artery. Although the total amount of movement available between any two adjacent vertebrae is small, when these movements are summed together along the entire length of the vertebral column, large body movements can be produced. To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key. In 3-15% of the population, a bony bridge called the covers the groove for the vertebral artery on vertebra C1.